Decision making is an inseparable component of all human activities. The aim in our research, consultancy and training is to improve and enhance decisions (scientifically peer-reviewed articles, are listed and available below). We specialize in everyday decision making (such as consumer decision making) as well as experts, such as in medical healthcare, corporate, banking, investigative and frontline policing, and forensic decision making --see recent paper in Science.
In examining decision making, it is critical to understand both the processes by which decision alternatives are identified, evaluated, and managed, and the actual selecting mechanism that leads to the decision choice. The decision making process is dependent on a variety of factors, which may alter the decision choice. These include decision complexity, risk management, time pressure, expertise, contextual influences & bias, use of technology, age, choices & judgments, motivation, stress, need for cognitive coherence, visual construct and so forth. These must be taken into account if one is going to construct training, CPD, procedures, best practices, marketing, and use technology to make effective and efficient decisions.
For example, how context can affect and bias our decisions. See, for instance, recent papers published in Science (e.g., 'Explore blind testing to prevent errors - get practical about fighting cognitive bias'), or in Nature and in The Economist (e.g., 'Ignorance is bliss') that focus on Dr Dror's work in expert forensic decision making, and procedures to minimize such biases, e.g., Linear Sequential Unmasking (LSU).
On consumer decision making, marketing and branding
Publications and presentations on these issues:
Another issue is how time pressure affects our decisions. As time pressure increases, our ability to examine and compare choice alternatives is challenged, and the decision making process is modified. These changes include ignoring some choice alternatives altogether, selectively examining information, change of threshold for responding, and more. We examine these effects, focusing on how they interact with risk taking and expertise in a number of domains (such as medical, financial, policing, and aviation decision making).
There are eight sources of bias that may cognitively contaminate decision making, even by experts. They are organized in a taxonomy within three categories: sources relating to the specific case and analysis (Category A), sources that relate to the specific person doing the analysis (Category B), and sources that relate to human nature (Category C) -see Dror, 2020. There are also common fallacies about bias. See BBC’s Newsnight interview with Dr. Dror on cognitive aspects in expert decision making, as well as PBS 'Frontline' TV (USA) "Can Unconscious Bias Undermine Fingerprint Analysis?", and a recent paper in science as well as other scientific publications and events.
One must remember that decisions are not made in isolation. They do not only depend on 'objective' data-driven information. A variety of external influences play a major role in how information is perceived, processed, evaluated, and represented, which all have critical roles in the decision making process and its outcome. Decisions are further mediated by experience and expertise. These are of great interest to our CCI-HQ team and a focus of our current research, consultancy and training (see list of events and publications). Below are two short videos on factors that impact decision making of experts as well as consumers: