Basic research in cognitive neuroscience and its application to solve problems in the real world and the workplace is the frontier in psychological science and making an impact in the world we live in. Much of Dr. Dror's and CCI-HQ's research has been covered by the major scientific journals (e.g., Science and Nature), and in our various events.
Below is a list of scientific publications by Dr Itiel Dror. The articles are listed in chronological order (within each year they are listed by alphabetical order). The list does not include papers "in preparation," "submitted," or "under revisions", nor does it include conference proceedings, published abstracts, and book reviews.
You can view publications by topics: Training, Decision Making, Forensic Identification, and Medical Healthcare.
To receive a copy of any of the articles below, please click on the links below or fill in a contact request.
(some articles are also available in Spanish, Chinese and Japanese)
Dror, I. E. (2018). Biases in Forensic Experts. SCIENCE, 360 (6386), 243. DOI: 10.1126/science.aat8443
Dror, I. E., Kukucka, J., Kassin, S, & Zapf, P. (2018). No one is immune to contextual bias—Not even forensic pathologists. Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition, 7 (2), 316-317.
Dror, I. E., Kukucka, J., Kassin, S, & Zapf, P. (2018). When expert decision making goes wrong: Consensus, bias, the role of experts and accuracy. Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition, 7 (1), 162-163.
Dror, I.E. & Langenburg, G. (2018). "Cannot Decide": The fine line between appropriate inconclusive determinations VS. unjustifiably deciding not to decide. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 63.
Dror, I. E. & Murrie, D. (2018). A Hierarchy of Expert Performance (HEP) applied to forensic psychological assessments. Psychology, Public Policy and Law, 24 (1), 11-23.
Dror, I. E., McCormack, B., & Epstein, J. (2018). Better science for better justice: A proposal for joint experts. Judicial Edge.
Jeanguenat, A.M. & Dror, I.E. (2018). Human factors effecting forensic decision making: Workplace stress and wellbeing. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 63 (1), 258–261.
Morgan, R.M., Nakhaeizadeh, S., Rando, C., and Dror, I. E. (2018). Research into contextual influences and forensic decision making: A Response. Journal of Forensic Science, 63 (5).
Nakhaeizadeh, S., Morgan, R., Rando, C. & Dror, I. E. (2018). Cascading bias of initial exposure to information at the crime scene to the subsequent evaluation of skeletal remains. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 63 (2), 403-411.
Zapf, P., Kukucka, J., Kassin, S., & Dror, I. E. (2018). Cognitive bias in forensic mental health assessment: Evaluator beliefs about its nature and scope. Psychology, Public Policy and Law, 24 (1), 1-10.
Dror, I. E. (2017). Human expert performance in forensic decision making: Seven Different Sources of Bias. Australian Journal of Forensic Sciences, 49 (5), 541-547.
Dror, I. E., Morgan, R., Rando, C. & Nakhaeizadeh, S. (2017). The bias snowball and the bias cascade effects: Two distinct biases that may impact forensic decision making. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 62 (3), 832-833.
Jeanguenat, A.M., Bruce Budowle, B. & Dror, I.E. (2017). Strengthening forensic DNA decision making through a better understanding of the influence of cognitive bias. Science and Justice, 57 (6), 415-420.
Kukucka, J., Kassin, S., Zapf, P., & Dror, I. E. (2017). Cognitive Bias and Blindness: A Global Survey of Forensic Science Examiners. Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition, 6 (4), 452-459.
McCormack, B.M., Epstein, J., and Dror, I. E. (2017). The national commission on forensic science. Journal of the International Society of Barristers, 50 (3), 37-40.
Zapf, P. A., & Dror, I. E. (2017). Understanding and mitigating bias in forensic evaluation: Lessons from forensic science. International Journal of Forensic Mental Health, 16 (3), 227-238.
Dror, I.E. (2016). A Hierarchy of Expert Performance (HEP). Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition, 5 (2), 121-127.
MacLean, C. & Dror, I.E. (2016). Psychology and cognitive bias. In A. Kesselheim & C. Robertson (Eds.), Blinding as a Solution to Bias (ch 1, pp 13-24). Elsevier.
Mattijssen, E., Kerkhoff, W., Berger, C., Dror, I., and Stoel, R. (2016). Implementing context management in forensic casework: Minimizing contextual bias in firearms examination. Science and Justice, 56 (2), 113-122.
Dror, I. E. (2015). Cognitive neuroscience in forensic science: Understanding and utilising the human element. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, 370 (1674): 20140255. http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2014.0255.
Dror, I.E. (2015). Cognitive and Human Factors (pp. 40-49). In M. Walport (Ed.) Forensic science and beyond: authenticity, provenance and assurance - evidence and case studies. UK Government Office for Science.
Dror, I. E., McCormack, B. M., & Epstein, J. (2015). Cognitive bias and its impact on expert witnesses and the court. The Judges' Journal, 54(4), 8-15.
Dror, I. E., Thompson, W.C., Meissner, C.A, Kornfield, I., Krane, D., Saks, M., & Risinger, M. (2015). Context Management Toolbox: A Linear Sequential Unmasking (LSU) Approach for Minimizing Cognitive Bias in Forensic Decision Making. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 60 (4), 1111-1112.
Edmond, G., Tangen, J., Searston, R. & Dror, I. E. (2015). Contextual bias and cross-contamination in the forensic sciences: The corrosive implications for investigations, plea bargains, trials and appeals. Law, Probability, and Risk, 14 (1), 1-25.
Nakhaeizadeh, S., Dror, I., and Morgan, R. (2015). The emergence of cognitive bias in forensic science and criminal investigations. British Journal of American Legal Studies, 4, 527-554.
Stoel, R.D., Berger, C.E.H., Kerkhoff, W., Mattijssen, E.J.A.T. & Dror, I.E. (2015). Minimizing contextual bias in forensic casework. In M. Hickman and K. Strom (Eds.), Forensic Science and the Administration of Justice (ch 5, 67-86). SAGE Publishing.
Dror, I. E. (2014). Practical Solutions to Cognitive and Human Factor Challenges in Forensic Science. Forensic Science Policy & Management, 4, 105-113.
Dror, I. E. & Stoel, R. (2014). Cognitive forensics: human cognition, contextual information and bias. In the Encyclopedia of Criminology and Criminal Justice (pp. 353-363). Springer.
Kellman, P.J, Mnookin, J.L., Erlikhman, G., Garrigan, P., Ghose, T., Mettler, E., Charlton, D., and Dror, I. E. (2014). Forensic Comparison and Matching of Fingerprints: Using Quantitative Image Measures for Estimating Error Rates through Understanding and Predicting Difficulty. PLoS ONE 9(5), e94617.
Nakhaeizadeh, S., Dror, I. E. & Morgan, R. (2014). Cognitive bias in forensic anthropology: Visual assessments of skeletal remains is susceptible to confirmation bias. Science & Justice, 54 (3), 208–214 .
Park, C.S, Stojiljkovic, L., Lin, B.F., Milicic, B., & Dror, I. E. (2014). Training Induces Cognitive Bias: The Case of a Simulation-Based Emergency Airway Curriculum. Simulation in Healthcare, 9 (2), 85-93.
Stoel, R.D., Dror, I. E., and Miller, L. S. (2014). Bias among forensic document examiners: Still a need for procedural changes. Australian Journal of Forensic Sciences, 46 (1), 91-97 .
Dror, I. E. (2013). Patient safety. In J. A. Dent & R. M. Harden (Eds.), A Practical Guide for Medical Teachers (pp. 276-282). Elsevier.
Dror, I. E. (2013). Cognitive technology. In the 2013 Yearbook of Science & Technology (pp. 80-82). New York: McGraw-Hill.
Dror, I. E. (2013). The ambition to be scientific: Human expert performance and objectivity. Science and Justice, 53 (2), 81-82.
Dror, I. E. (2013). What is (or will be) happening to the cognitive abilities of forensic experts in the new technological age. Journal of Forensic Sciences,58 (2), 563.
Dror, I. E., Kassin, S. M., & Kukucka, J. (2013). New application of psychology to law: Improving forensic evidence and expert witness contributions. Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition, 2 (1), 78-81.
Kassin, S. M., Dror, I. E., & Kukucka, J. (2013). The forensic confirmation bias: Problems, perspectives, and proposed solutions. Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition, 2 (1), 42-52.
Fraser-Mackenzie, P., Dror, I. E., & Wertheim, K. (2013). Cognitive and contextual influences in determination of latent fingerprint suitability for identification judgments. Science & Justice, 53 (2), 144-153.
Dror, I. E. (2012). Cognitive bias in forensic science. Science & Technology 2012 Yearbook (pp. 43-45). McGraw-Hill.
Dror, I. E. (2012). Combating bias: The next step in fighting cognitive and psychological contamination. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 57 (1), 276-277.
Dror, I. E. (2012). Expectations, contextual information, and other cognitive influences in forensic laboratories. Science and Justice, 52 (2), 132.
Dror, I. E. (2012). Cognitive forensics and experimental research about bias in forensic casework. Science and Justice, 52 (2), 128-130.
Dror, I. E., Wertheim, K., Fraser-Mackenzie, P., and Walajtys, J. (2012). The impact of human-technology cooperation and distributed cognition in forensic science: Biasing effects of AFIS contextual information on human experts. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 57 (2), 343-352.
Busey, T. & Dror, I.E. (2011). Special Abilities and Vulnerabilities in Forensic Expertise. In The Fingerprint Sourcebook, ch. 15, pp. 1-23. Washington DC: NIJ Press.
Dror, I. E. (2011). Brain friendly technology: What is it? And why we need it? In I. E. Dror, Technology Enhanced Learning and Cognition. John Benjamins, Amsterdam.
Dror, I. E. (2011). A novel approach to minimize error in the medical domain: Cognitive neuroscientific insights into training. Medical Teacher, 33 (1), 34-38.
Dror, I. E. (ed.) (2011). Technology Enhanced Learning and Cognition. John Benjamins, Amsterdam.
Dror, I. E. (2011). The paradox of human expertise: Why experts get it wrong. In N. Kapur (Ed.) The Paradoxical Brain (pp. 177-188). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Dror, I. E. (2011). Patient care and training: Minimizing errors in medical care that result in patient harm, Medical Teacher, 33 (5), 426-427.
Dror, I. E. & Bucht, R. (2011). Psychological perspectives on problems with forensic science evidence. In B. Cutler (Ed.), Conviction of the Innocent: Lessons from Psychological Research. American Psychological Association Press.
Dror, I. E., Champod, C., Langenburg, G., Charlton, D., Hunt, H., & Rosenthal R. (2011). Cognitive issues in fingerprint analysis: Inter-and intra-expert consistency and the effect of a 'target' comparison. Forensic Science International, 208, 10-17.
Dror, I. E. & Hampikian, G. (2011). Subjectivity and bias in forensic DNA mixture interpretation. Science & Justice, 51 (4), 204-208.
Dror, I. E, Makany, T., & Kemp, J. (2011). Overcoming learning barriers through knowledge management. Dyslexia, 17, 38-47.
Dror, I. E., Schmidt, P., and O'Connor, L. (2011). A Cognitive Perspective on Technology Enhanced Learning in Medical Training: Great Opportunities, Pitfalls and Challenges. Medical Teacher, 33 (4), 291-296
Fernandez. R., Dror, I. E., Smith, C. (2011). Spatial abilities of expert clinical anatomists: Comparison of abilities between novices, intermediates, and experts in anatomy. Anatomical Sciences Education, 4 (1), 1-8.
Fraser-Mackenzie, P. & Dror, I. E. (2011). Dynamic reasoning and time pressure: Transition from analytical operations to experiential responses. Theory and Decision, 71 (2), 211-225.
Meadmore, K.L., Dror, I.E., Bucks. R.S., & Liversedge, S.P. (2011). Eye movements during visuospatial judgements. Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 23 (1), 92-101.
Mnookin, J., Cole, S., Dror, I. E., Fisher, B., Houck, M., Inman, K.,. Kaye, D., Koehler, J., Langenburg, G. Risinger, M. Rudin, N. Siegel, J., and Stoney, D. (2011). The need for a research culture in the forensic sciences. UCLA Law Review, 58 (3), 725-779.
Charlton, D., Fraser-Mackenzie, P., and Dror, I. E. (2010). Emotional experiences and motivating factors associated with fingerprint analysis. Journal of Forensics Sciences, 55 (2), 385-393.
Dror, I. E. & Cole, S. (2010). The vision in 'blind' justice: Expert perception, judgment and visual cognition in forensic pattern recognition. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 17(2), 161-167.
Dror, I. E. & Mnookin, J. (2010). The use of technology in human expert domains: Challenges and risks arising from the use of automated fingerprint identification systems in forensics. Law, Probability and Risk, 9 (1), 47-67.
Cherrett, T., Wills, G., Price, J., Maynard,S ., & Dror, I.E. (2009). Making Training More Cognitively Effective: Making Videos Interactive. British Journal of Educational Technology, 40 (6), 1124-1134.
Dror, I. E. (2009). How can Francis Bacon help forensic science? The four idols of human biases. Jurimetrics: The Journal of Law, Science, and Technology, 50, 93-110.
Dror, I. D. (2009). On proper research and understanding of the interplay between bias and decision outcomes. Forensic Science International, 191, 17-18.
Engelbrecht, P. & Dror, I. E. (2009). How psychology and cognition can inform the creation of ontologies in semantic technologies. In Y. Kiyoki, T. Tokuda, H. Jaakkola, X. Chen, & N., Yoshida (eds.), Information Modelling and Knowledge Bases (pp 340-347). Amsterdam, the Netherlands: IOS Press.
Fraser-Mackenzie, P. & Dror, I. E. (2009). Selective information sampling: Cognitive coherence in evaluation of a novel item. Judgment and Decision Making, 4 (4), 307-316.
Krane, D., Dror, I.E., et al. (2009). Time for DNA disclosure. Science, 326, 1631-1632.
Makany, T., Kemp, J., & Dror, I. E. (2009). Optimising the use of note-taking as an external cognitive aid for increasing learning. British Journal of Educational Technology, 40(4), 619-635.
Meadmore, K., Dror, I. E., & Bucks, R.S. (2009). Lateralisation of spatial processing and age. Laterality, 14 (1), 17-29.
Stibel, J. M., Dror, I. E., & Ben-Zeev, T. (2009). Dissociating choice and judgment in decision making: The Collapsing Choice Theory. Theory and Decision, 66 (2), 149-179.
Sung, M., Johnson, J.E. & Dror, I. E. (2009). Complexity as a guide to understanding decision bias: A contribution to the favorite-longshot bias debate. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 22(3), 318-337.
Dror, I. E. (2008). Technology enhanced learning: The good, the bad, and the ugly. Pragmatics & Cognition, 16 (2), 215-223.
Dror, I. E. (2008). Biased brains. Police Review, 116, 20-23.
Dror, I. E. & Fraser-Mackenzie, P. (2008). Cognitive biases in human perception, judgment, and decision making: Bridging theory and the real world. In K. Rossmo (Ed.) Criminal Investigative Failures (pp 53-67). Taylor & Francis Publishing.
Dror, I. E. & Harnad, S. (2008). Offloading cognition onto cognitive technology. In I.Dror & S. Harnad (Eds.), Cognition Distributed: How Cognitive Technology Extends Our Minds (pp 1-23). Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing.
Dror, I. E. & Harnad, S. (eds.) (2008). Cognition Distributed: How Cognitive Technology Extends Our Minds. (258 pp.) John Benjamins, Amsterdam.
Dror, I. E. and Rosenthal, R. (2008). Meta-analytically quantifying the reliability and biasability of forensic experts. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 53(4), 900-903.
Dror, I. E., Stevenage, S. V., & Ashworth, A. (2008). Helping the cognitive system learn: Exaggerating distinctiveness and uniqueness. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 22 (4), 573-584.
Charlton, D, Del Manso, H., & Dror, I. E. (2007). Expert error: The mind trap. FingerprintWhorld, 33, 151-155.
Dror, I. E. (2007). Perception of risk and the decision to use force. Policing, 1, 265-272.
Dror, I. E.(ed.) (2007). Cognitive Technologies and the Pragmatics of Cognition. (186 pp.) John Benjamin Press, Amsterdam.
Dror, I.E. (2007). Land mines and gold mines in cognitive technologies. In I. E. Dror (Ed.), Cognitive Technologies and the Pragmatics of Cognition. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing.
Makany, T., Redhead E., & Dror, I. E. (2007). Spatial exploration patterns determine navigation efficiency: Trade-off between memory demands and distance travelled. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 60, 1594-1602.
Dror, I. E. (2006). A holistic-cognitive approach for success in technology. Biometric Technology Today, 14(8), 7-8.
Dror, I. E. (2006). Cognitive science serving security: Assuring useable and efficient biometric and technological solutions. Aviation Security International, 12 (3), 21-28.
Dror, I. E. (2006). The psychology of police performance and decision making. Police Professional, 58, 37-39.
Dror, I. E. & Charlton, D. (2006). Why experts make errors. Journal of Forensic Identification, 56 (4), 600-616
Dror, I. E., Charlton, D., & Peron A. (2006). Contextual information renders experts vulnerable to making erroneous identifications. Forensic Science International, 156 (1), 74-78.
Harnad, S. & Dror, I. E. (2006). Distributed cognition. Pragmatics & Cognition, 14 (2), 209-123.
Rafaely, V., Dror, I. E., & Remington, R. E. (2006). Information selectivity in decision making by young and older adults. International Journal of Psychology, 41 (2), 117-131.
Smith, W., Dror, I. E., & Schmitz-Williams, I.C. (2006). The effect of decomposability and meaningfulness on the representation and processing of visual information in mental rotation. Journal of Mental Imagery, 30, 113-124.
Dror, I. E. (2005). Perception is far from perfection: The role of the brain and mind in constructing realities. Brain and Behavioural Sciences 28 (6), 763.
Dror, I. E. (2005). Technology and human expertise: Some do’s and don’ts. Biometric Technology Today, 13 (9), 7-9.
Dascal, M. & Dror, I. E. (2005). The impact of cognitive technologies: Towards a pragmatic approach. Pragmatics & Cognition, 13 (3), 451-457.
Dror, I. E., Peron, A., Hind, S., & Charlton, D. (2005). When emotions get the better of us: The effect of contextual top-down processing on matching fingerprints. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 19(6), 799-809.
Dror, I. E., Schmitz-Williams, I.C., & Smith, W. (2005). Older adults use mental representations that reduce cognitive load: Mental rotation utilises holistic representations and processing. Experimental Aging Research, 31(4), 409-420.
Dror, I. E. & Thomas, R. D. (2005). The cognitive neuroscience laboratory: A framework for the science of mind. In C. Erneling & D. Johnson (Eds.), The Mind as a Scientific Object: Between Brain and Culture (pp. 283-292). New York: Oxford University Press.
Dror, I. E. (2004). The effects of screening, training, and experience of Air Force fighter pilots: The plasticity of the ability to extrapolate and track multiple objects in motion. North American Journal of Psychology, 6 (2), 239-252.
Ashman, O., Dror, I. E., Houlette, M., & Levy, B. (2003). Preserved risk-taking skills in old age. North American Journal of Psychology, 5 (3), 397-407.
Smith, W. & Dror, I. E. (2001). The role of meaning and familiarity in mental transformations. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 8 (4), 732-741.
Ashworth, A.R.S. & Dror, I. E. (2000). Object Identification as a Function of Discriminability and Learning Presentations: The Effect of Stimulus Similarity and Canonical Frame Alignment on Aircraft Identification. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 6 (2), 148-157.
Dror, I. E. & Stevenage, S. (eds.) (2000).Facial Information Processing: A multidisciplinary perspective. (276 pp.) John Benjamins, Amsterdam.
Levy, B., Ashman, O. & Dror, I. E. (2000). To be or not to be: The effects of age stereotypes on the will to live. Omega: Journal of Death and Dying, 40 (3), 409-420.
Dror, I. E., Busemeyer, J.R., & Basola, B. (1999). Decision making under time pressure: An independent test of sequential sampling models. Memory and Cognition, 27 (4), 713-725.
Dror, I. E. & Gallogly, D. (1999). Computational analyses in cognitive neuroscience: In defense of biological implausibility. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 6 (2), 173-182.
Kosslyn, S. M., Brown, H. D., & Dror, I. E. (1999). Aging and the scope of visual attention. Gerontology, 45 (2), 102-109.
Brown, H., Kosslyn, S. M., & Dror, I. E., (1998). Aging and scanning of imagined and perceived visual images. Experimental aging Research, 24 (2), 181-194.
Dror, I. E., Katona, M., & Mungur, K. (1998). Age differences in decision making: To take a risk or not? Gerontology, 44 (2), 67-71.
Dror, I. E. & Kosslyn, S. M. (1998). Age degradation in top-down processing: Identifying objects from canonical and noncanonical viewpoints. Experimental Aging Research, 24 (3), 203-216.
Dror, I. E. & Schreiner, C. S. (1998). Neural networks and perception. In J. S. Jordan (Ed.), Systems Theories and A prior Aspects of Perception, (pp. 77-85). Amsterdam: Elsevier Press.
Dror, I. E. & Dascal, M. (1997). Can Wittgenstein help free the mind from rules? The philosophical foundations of connectionism. In D. Johnson & C. Erneling (Eds.), The Future of the Cognitive Revolution, (pp. 217-226). Oxford University Press.
Dror, I. E., Ivey, C., & Rogus, C. (1997). Visual mental rotation of possible and impossible objects. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 4 (2), 242-247.
Dror, I. E., Zagaeski, M., Rios, D. & Moss, C. F. (1997). Neural network sonar as a perceptual modality for robotics. In P. Smagt & O. Omidvar (Eds.), Neural Systems and Robotics, (pp. 1-15). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
Dror, I. E., Florer, F.L., Rios, D., & Zagaeski, M. (1996). Using artificial bat sonar neural networks for complex pattern recognition: Recognizing faces and the speed of a moving target. Biological Cybernetics, 74 (4), 331-338.
Dror, I. E. & Florer, F. L. (1995). A neural network that recognizes faces. In F. A. Sadjadi (Ed.), Automatic Object Recognition, (pp. 123-129). Bellingham, WA: SPIE.
Dror, I. E., Florer, F. L., Moss, C. F. (1995). Using neural networks to study concept formation in a sonar discrimination task. In S. K. Rogers & D. W. Ruck (Eds.), Applications and Science of Artificial Neural Networks, (pp. 218-228). Bellingham, WA: SPIE.
Dror, I. E., Zagaeski, M., & Moss, C. F. (1995). Three-dimensional target recognition via sonar: A neural network model. Neural Networks, 8 (1), 143-154.
Dror, I. E. (1994). Neural network models as tools for understanding high-level cognition: Developing paradigms for cognitive interpretation of neural network models. In M. C. Mozer, P. Smolensky, D. S. Touretzky, J. L. Elman, & A. S. Weigend (Eds.), Connectionist Models, (pp. 87-94). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Dror, I. E. & Kosslyn, S. M. (1994). Mental imagery and aging. Psychology and Aging, 9 (1), 90-102.
Rueckl, J. G. & Dror, I. E. (1994). The effect of orthographic-semantic systematicity on the acquisition of new words. In C. Umilta & M. Moscovitch (Eds.) Attention and Performance, XV, (pp. 571-588). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Dror, I. E., Kosslyn, S. M., & Waag, W. (1993). Visual-spatial abilities of pilots. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78 (5), 763-773.
Kosslyn, S. M., LeSueur, L. L., Dror, I. E., & Gazzaniga, M. (1993). The role of the corpus callosum in the representation of lateral orientation. Neuropsychologia, 31 (7), 675-686.
Kosslyn, S. M. & Dror, I. E. (1992). A cognitive neuroscience of Alzheimer's disease: What can be learned from studies of visual imagery? In Y. Christen & P. Churchland (Eds.) Neurophilosophy and Alzheimer's Disease, (pp. 49-59). Berlin: Springer-Verlag.